Antenna Project .An antenna for a wireless sensor network for trains is designed and built. The network will monitor temperature and vibrations of the wheel bearings on the train wagons. Doing this will allow for an earlier detection of damaged wheels, which will ease planning of maintenance and reduce wear on the rails considerable.
The constructed antenna is a small dual-layer patch antenna. Dual layer means that it is constructed out of two sheets known as substrates of insulating material with different characteristics. The lower one of these substrates is made in such a way that integration with a circuit board is possible. Such integration would reduce the production cost considerably.
The antenna surface could be part of the train. It uses the surrounding metal as a ground plane in order to reduce its size. The result is a small patch antenna with good radiation qualities in metallic surrounded.
The requirement of the system is that it is to be installed without any cables attached to the sensor nodes. This calls for wireless communication, and that for that antennas are needed.A train is a difficult environment to transmit electromagnetic (EM) waves in.
To help enable the next generation of wireless technology, paradigm shifts in the antenna
designs are needed, and significant advances in the development of physics-based propagation models for channel characterization are required. In the antenna design area, high performance and low cost antenna array designs with full.
A wide variety of space diversity techniques have been proposed and the development of a low cost adaptive antenna array is crucial in the realization and implementation of these systems. Results of a comparative study between adaptive antennas and various diversity techniques are presented. Regarding the propagation models it is fair to say that there have been a great deal of ongoing research in this area. It is also fair to conclude that much of the available information need improvements particularly in two areas. This includes the desire to develop physics-based deterministic models that take into account unique propagation environments.