WEATHER MONITORING AND INSTRUMENT CONTROL SYSTEM USING MICROCONTROLLER

Introduction:-

The project (weather monitoring station) is based on the application of 8051 microcontroller (any microcontroller of 8051 family can be used). The data logger detects the environmental conditions & gives the relevant information to the user about the weather conditions such as temperature, humidity,rain fall level (etc). The information can be of great use for the monitoring of weather for the agricultural and industrial purposes. The information can be received by the user by various means such as direct display over lcd which is in built in the module itself, through the sms & through the web. The data logger can be used for the industrial applications. It monitors the temperature & detects the other parameters of weather present at the particular place on real time basis. The information of the same is forwarded by the data logger itself as a sms to the supervisor informing on his cellphone about the rise in temperature or in some cases the change of parameters. This economical device (microcontroller based) is of great use for industrial purposes. The MAXIM 168 A/D converter is used to convert the analog signals from the sensors to digital signals that are used for interpretation within the microcontroller 8051.

 

The MAXIM 168 A/D converter is used to convert the analog signals from the sensors to digital signals

that are used for interpretation within the microcontroller 8051.

Sensor used in this project are :

i. Temperature sensors

ii. Humidity sensors

iii. Wind speed and direction sensors

iv. Tripping bucket rainfall sensors

i. Temperature sensors:

There are many types and kinds of Temperature sensors used in different applications.In our project we will use LM35 temperature sensor, which analog temperature sensor and easy to use in application like this. The microcontroller has do little in the regard.

ii. Humidity sensors

Relative humidity/temperature and relative humidity sensors are configured with integrated circuitry to provide on-chip signal conditioning. Absorption-based humidity sensors provide both temperature and %RH (Relative Humidity) outputs.

iii. Wind speed and direction sensors Anemometer and wind vane with crossarm and power supply. Designed for demanding wind measurement applications. Vaisala Wind Set WA15 or Vaisala Wind Set WA25 or Vaisala Wind Sensor WM30 Combined mechanical wind speed and direction sensor. The WM30 is compact and light, rigid and affordable. Low power consumption makes it ideal also for mobile applications.Measures the horizontal wind speed using a Reed-contact which is activated by the revolution of the cup-star. Best price / performance-ratio for basic requirements, includes 20 m cable. Measures horizontal wind direction. The measuring values are output as ohmic resistance signals.

iv. Tripping bucket rainfall sensors

DRD11A Rain Detector Rain Detector DRD11A features fast and accurate precipitation detection (ON/OFF). The sensor operates via droplet detection rather than by signal level threshold. The  apacitive principle utilizes the RainCap sensor plate. The LCD display is displaying the main parameters of weather monitoring station which includes rainfall, air direction, soil moisture and humidity. As we already discussed The entire data is analog, these data is converted to digital data by ADC. The four channel digital signals are compared between exit and present data due to the embedded code; it is stored into flash memory of the microcontroller. The condition of the parameter is invalid then the microcontroller control motor and sprayer; it is depend on the wet or dry of soil and climates of the sky or heaven.

The Anemometer

Anemometer is an important part of any weather monitoring station.The anemometer measures wind speed and direction. The anemometer wind speed operating range is up to 125 miles per hour and has a accuracy resolution of +/- (plus or minus) 0.4mph. In steady wind conditions the anemometer transmits new readings to the display unit once every minute; in gusty conditions, gust updating occurs every 14-seconds. Wind direction operating range is 0oF to 359oF. Data transmission to the display unit occurs every 5-seconds. The anemometer is powered by a solar cell with battery backup.

The Rain Gauge

Rain Gauge is an important part of any weather monitoring station. The Rain Gauge measures rainfall in millimeter increments reflecting current rainfall or accumulation of data from previous last reset. The Rain Gauge features a self-emptying rain collection unit. Daily rainfall sampling rate is every 24-hours

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